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to 10 (best) for fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., how much carbon dioxide the vehicle’s tailpipe emits each mile), as shown below. Consumers may note that higher fuel economy is associated with a better GHG emissions profile.
There are two ratings that apply
to each vehicle—one for fuel economy and one for greenhouse gas emissions—but in practice most vehicles will display only one rating. This is because carbon dioxide emissions are directly related to
the amount of fuel consumed. This relationship varies from fuel to fuel, but both rating systems are based on gasoline vehicles, meaning that gasoline vehicles get the same
rating for fuel economy and for greenhouse gas emissions. In cases where the fuel economy performance and greenhouse gas emissions
do not yield the same rating, For vehicles that only run on
electricity, the tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions are zero. Of course, these vehicles do cause emissions
at the electric power plant, with amounts varying greatly based on
the source of electricity (such as
coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydro,
or wind). Consumers can use our greenhouse gas calculator to estimate GHG missions associated with the production and distribution of the electricity used to charge an electric vehicle or Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle in their region of the country. 8. CO2 Emissions Information:
The labeled vehicle’s CO2 tailpipe emissions are based on tested tailpipe CO2 emission rates.
The rate of CO2 emissions is displayed in grams per mile.
The label identifies the lowest tailpipe CO2 emissions of available vehicles. If there are electric or fuel cell vehicles on the market, which by definition
have zero tailpipe emissions, this value will be zero grams per mile. Learn more about emissions
from the production of fuels at
Driving your vehicle can yield both greenhouse gas emissions from your vehicle’s tailpipe and Green House Gas emissions related to the production of the fuel used to power your vehicle. For example, activities associated with fuel production such as feedstock extraction, feedstock transport to a processing plant,
and conversion of feedstock to
JUNE 2020
motor fuel, as well as distribution of the motor fuel, can all produce Green House Gas emissions.
The Fuel Economy and Environment Label provides a Greenhouse Gas Rating, from 1 to 10, based on your vehicle’s tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions only, and this rating does not reflect any Green House Gas emissions associated with fuel production.
You can estimate the total Green House Gas emissions that would be associated with driving an All-Electric Vehicle or Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, including Green House Gas emissions from the production of electricity used to power the vehicle, with our greenhouse gas calculator. 9. Smog Rating: This is a rating
for vehicle tailpipe emissions of
those pollutants that cause smog
and other local air pollution. This information, listed as “Smog” on
the labels, will be displayed using
a slider bar with a scale of 1 to
10. The scale is based on the U.S. vehicle emissions standards, which incorporate specific thresholds for nitrogen oxide, non-methane organic gas, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and formaldehyde. For
those vehicles that run on electricity, the tailpipe emissions are zero. 10.Details in Fine Print: This part
of the label has a reminder that your fuel economy and Green House Gas emissions may be different due to
a number of factors, such as how
you drive and maintain your vehicle, how much you use air conditioning and other accessories, the weather, road conditions, how much the vehicle is loaded, and other factors. EPA periodically evaluates ways to improve our fuel economy estimates so they better reflect real-world driving. For more information on
how your fuel economy can vary, or tips to improve your fuel economy, please see Gas Mileage Tips.
This part of the label also details the assumptions that are used to determine the estimated annual fuel cost and the value used to compare 5-year costs to the average vehicle. EPA assumes annual mileage of 15,000 miles. The price of electricity listed on new vehicle labels is based on projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration for the applicable model year. It will typically be updated annually in coordination with the Department of Energy. Since EPA won’t publish the fuel prices
for 2013 model year labeling until 2012, the sample labels include
an example price that is intended
for illustrative purposes only.
11.QR Code: When you are looking for a new vehicle at a dealership, you will be able to scan the QR Code on the new label using your smartphone, provided you have downloaded a scanner app. The QR Code will link you to helpful
tools and additional information about the vehicle. The same tools and information are available to everyone on 12. The label directs you to the web site, where you can compare vehicles and enter personalized information (e.g., local gas prices and individual driving habits)
to get the best possible cost
and energy-use estimates.
13. Driving Range: When
is fully charged, this value represents the approximate number of miles
that can be travelled in combined
city and highway driving before
the vehicle must be recharged. 14.Charge Time: This indicates
how long it takes to charge a fully empty battery using 240 volt electrical service. Some owners may choose
to install 240 volt service and others may choose to use a standard household outlet providing 120
volts. The vehicle manufacturer should be able to provide complete information on charging times and
the capabilities of their vehicles.
Emergence of Electric Auto continued from page 5 sold for $1,750. That same year the electric starter was introduced, eliminating the need for the hand crank, which gave rise to more gasoline- powered vehicle sales.
Other developments also contributed to the decline of the electric vehicle. By the 1920s, the U.S. had a better system of roads connecting cities, and Americans wanted to get out and explore. With the discovery of Texas crude oil, gas became cheap and readily available for rural America, and filling stations began popping up across the country. In comparison, few Americans had electricity at that time. In the end, electric vehicles all but disappeared by 1935.
Here, in the “Twenty-First Century”, we are able to publish this magazine about All-Electric and Hybrid-Electric automobiles.
the vehicle

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